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Methodology for developing environmental management options at the old Sambault landfill site
Marc-André Carrier and Jean-Marc Lauzon
The objective of this presentation is to highlight the methodology of the various steps that led to the development of environmental management options for the old Sambault landfill site.  

In 2012, TechnoRem was hired by Public Services and Procurement Canada (PSPC) to improve the knowledge of the physical context and environmental quality of the old Sambault landfill site in order to assess the various environmental management options. Based on previous studies and characterization work that had been undertaken, the environmental picture of the site was updated, a conceptual model was developed and digital modelling work on groundwater runoff and contaminant transportation was conducted in order to propose measures aimed at protecting the fractured bedrock aquifer used as a source of drinking water by the neighbouring municipality of Saint-Isidore-de-Laprairie. Between 2015 and 2016, laboratory treatability tests and pilot field testing were conducted in order to test various treatment processes for leachate water coming from the site in order to document an effective and economic treatment file meeting federal criteria and the environmental effluent discharge objectives proposed for the problematic parameters. The plans and specifications were subsequently prepared in 2017 for the implementation of the scenario selected by PSPC, more specifically the following measures in order to control the migration of contamination enclaves in the groundwater: 1) remediation of the site’s surface, 2) hydraulic confinement of groundwater in the affected zones with the installation of some thirty pumping wells, 3) the construction of a treatment station for the pumped water and the installation of an effluent conduit. The implementation of these measures is currently underway by the firm Golder Associates, under the supervision of TechnoRem. This presentation will highlight the methodology of the various steps that led to the development of environmental management options for the old Sambault landfill site.

Marc-André Carrier, Project Manager, TechnoRem
Marc-André Carrier has been a project manager at TechnoRem since 2016. He has more than 15 years of experience in the fields of earth and environmental sciences, mainly in hydro-geological, geological and environmental characterizations. He has participated in several regional and local hydro-geology projects as well as the in-situ and ex-situ remediation of soil and groundwater.

Pan Canadian Survey: Risk-Based Closure of Low Vulnerability Contaminated Sites
Ralph Bock, Wood Environment and Infrastructure
The objective of this presentation is to present a survey from across the federal, provincial, and territorial landscape and provide a summary of the status of “risk-based closures”. Generally acceptable methodologies, closure conditions, and the acceptability, durability, forms of controls and financial assurances will be discussed.  

The science and regulation of contaminated sites is a relatively new practice in the scope of the public welfare regulation. Traditional approaches focusing on source removal or amelioration to a “look up value” have been the “go to” choice for regulators and the regulated for the last 30 years. Concepts such as “risk-based decision making” started to influence contaminated sites in the 1990’s, and the notion of risk assessment a little later in the decade. The presentation at hand will share a survey from across the federal, provincial, and territorial landscape and provide a summary of the status of “risk-based closures”. Generally acceptable methodologies, closure conditions, and the acceptability, durability, forms of controls (physical, engineered, and/or administrative), and financial assurances will be discussed.

In addition, the use of alternative tools to assess threat of adverse effect and prioritize sites will be presented. The current paradigm essentially devotes similar levels of effort, to all sites no matter the potential of adverse effect. As regulators and the regulated are facing increasing restraint and constraint, the public and local governments are looking to both parties for closure mechanisms that provide adequate environmental protection, and foster redevelopment into something other than a vacant lot being managed. A critical piece of this is discussion of a triage system for impacted sites, to ensure “we” are not mobilizing a full “trauma team” for a sprained ankle or sore throat. Just like in the healthcare system some sites may not be a priority and may have to wait to be attended to.

Ralph Bock, Associate, Wood Environment and Infrastructure
Ralph Bock is an environmental professional with over 30 years’ experience, notably in contaminated sites and emergency environmental management. He served the Saskatchewan Ministry of Environment for 23 years in a variety of roles from regulating potash mining and heavy industry, to managing large environmental emergencies. With his regulatory experience he understands and knows the regulatory regime and direction provincially and nationally. He is well versed in the regulatory and permitting processes at the national and provincial levels across western Canada and Western United States. He played a key role in developing the Saskatchewan Environmental Code Chapters, Standards and Guidance. Ralph has acted as a subject matter expert for national and international agencies. He has provided training, presentations nationally and internationally. He has been qualified as an expert in Saskatchewan Provincial, Court and the Court of Queen’s Bench.

Assessment of the metal background levels in the groundwater at Canadian Forces Base Valcartier: Valorization of the existing data using automatic classification methods
Martine Rivest1, Youri Brochu1, Alicia Moreno2, François Beaudoin1
1Golder Associates
2Department of National Defence
The objective of this presentation is to show a case study for the assessment of metal background levels in groundwater. Emphasis will be placed on the development of a specific analysis protocol at CFB Valcartier and the application of an automatic classification method for identifying the sampling stations that are representative of the background levels.  

As part of a study aimed at assessing the metal background levels in the groundwater at CFB Valcartier (Base), a protocol for the statistical analysis of the data was developed in collaboration with the Department of National Defence (DND) in order to take effective advantage of the Base’s vast environmental database. The approach developed is unique in terms of innovation through the integration of multivariable statistical analysis and automatic classification within a protocol making it possible to manage the geochemical analysis results from the groundwater taken from more than 1,400 observation wells, sampled over a period of 15 years, on a territory covering 220 km2 where multiple military training exercises have taken place since 1914.

A central element of the proposed approach was to enable the identification of existing observation wells that are representative of the natural metal background levels among the more than 1,400 observation wells. These wells were set up on military training sites with various contamination levels and signatures and are spread out in separate hydrostratigraphic units and watersheds. Normally, during a groundwater environmental characterization, establishing the boundaries of a contaminant plume involves the installation of peripheral observation wells. The information provided by these observation wells, normally located outside the contaminated area, can be used and valorized during the background level assessment at a site and thereby avoid the need for additional characterization work.

Given that the complexity of the problem with the assessment of the background levels at the Base was highlighted in a previous study, an approach based on the successive evaluation of training sites and based on multiple lines of evidence such as the historical and hydro-geochemical context was developed and implemented. The aim of this approach was to take into account the specificities of each training site, while ensuring the consistency of the observation wells identified as being representative of the background levels with the metal concentrations measured.

Given the enormous quantity of data available and the large number of geochemical parameters analyzed, multivariable analysis and automatic classification (unsupervised learning) methods were tested to differentiate groups of observation wells that are potentially representative of the background levels of those that are associated with anthropic metal contamination. First off, the analysis of main components made it possible to identify the presence or not of these groups based on the correlation between the various parameters. An automatic classification algorithm was then used to group the wells based on the differences observed in the chemical analysis results and the hydro-geochemical signatures observed, if applicable. These methods were adapted so as to properly take into account the limits of multiple detection (censored data) and the presence of abnormal data (outliers). This protocol was also implemented at Canadian Forces Base Bagotville.

Following the identification of representative wells outside the contamination area, the evaluation of the background levels in the groundwater was conducted based on recommendations contained in the reference works of recognized organizations (e.g. Environment and Climate Change Canada, US Environmental Protection Agency, Naval Facilities Engineering Command, United States Army Crops of Engineers).

Martine Rivest, Golder Associates
Martine Rivest is a hydrogeological engineer at Golder Associates, working in its Site Environmental Management Group. Since 2013, she has been participating in environmental characterization projects, groundwater quality monitoring and statistical studies. She has a Ph.D. in Geostatistics from the École Polytechnique de Montréal for research work aimed at developing a statistical model for estimating contaminant concentrations in groundwater.

Application of a design-construction approach for the implementation of environmental mitigation measures at the old Sambault landfill site in Saint-Isidore-de-la-Prairie, Quebec
Fabien Comby, Golder Associates
The objective of this presentation is to provide an overview of the challenges encountered and the solutions implemented during this project using a design-construction approach from the dual perspective of the client and contractor.  

Since 2010, Public Services and Procurement Canada (PSPC) has been managing the old Sambault landfill site located 30 km south of Montreal. The historic activities at this site covering approximately 150,000 m2 are the root cause of contamination in the soil, groundwater and surface waters that exceeds the regulatory values applicable for various families of contaminants (metals, petroleum hydrocarbons C10-C50, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, chlorinated solvents, etc.).

Following a public call for tenders, Golder Associates was hired to conduct the project, the overall objective of which was to ensure the overall environmental management of the site. It includes profiling and sealing work on the waste cells in order to reduce the infiltration of meteoric waters, the installation of a hydraulic confinement system in order to prevent the migration of contaminated water plumes outside the boundaries of the site and towards the rock aquifer, the implementation of a treatment system for the pumped water in order to respect the recommendations and applicable effluent criteria, the construction of a building housing this system and lastly the commissioning, fine-tuning, operating and maintenance of this system.

With the exception of the surface site remediation work for which the specifications were prescriptive, the project was completed in design-construction mode using a preliminary concept developed by TechnoRem. As such, Golder was responsible for designing and completing the detailed engineering of the pumping and water treatment system making it possible to achieve the performance criteria and completing the construction in a progressive manner.

This presentation will provide an overview of the challenges encountered and the solutions implemented during this project based on the dual perspective of the client and contractor. For example, the performance bond and timeframe constraints required the implementation of a specific project management mode as well as the application of methodologies and use of specialized tools. It will also address the innovative water treatment technology using electrocoagulation implemented in order to manage the large variety of contaminants present. Lastly, the presentation will share the feedback, key success factors such as communication and collaboration between the various stakeholders involved as well as the benefits of such a design-construction approach in a complex environmental project.

This project, which began in 2017, has now entered the fine-tuning phase and includes a hydraulic confinement system of 47 pumping wells, a water treatment system with a capacity of 200 lpm including 18 electrocoagulation reactors and a 3,600 sq.ft. steel building.

Fabien Comby, Associate and Operations Manager, Remediation – Construction Operation, Golder Associates
Fabien Comby, ing., PMP, DBIA, is an Engineer with more than 18 years of national and international experience on numerous large-scale site remediation projects. Fabien obtained a degree in Geophysical Engineering from École de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg (1994). He is registered as professional engineer in the province of Québec and holds a certification of Project Management Professional (PMP) and a certification of the Design-Build Institute of America (DBIA).

Fabien works as the operation manager for the environmental remediation services within the construction operation. As such, he is in charge of the remediation strategy development, proposals preparation and review, risk management, business development and overall project delivery for eastern Canada.

Saint-Germain Foundry - Environmental Management of a Contaminated Brownfield Site
Jonathan Roussy, Public Services and Procurement Canada
The objective of this presentation is to provide an example of the general management of a brownfield site assigned to a custodian of last resort.  

Under the Canada Business Corporations Act, federally chartered corporations are automatically placed in the real estate inventory of Public Services and Procurement Canada (PSPC) when they are dissolved. It is within this context that PSPC became the owner of the site of the old Saint-Germain foundry, a property with major environmental liabilities. After being informed in 2010 by provincial authorities that the site of the Saint-Germain foundry was now under its responsibility, PSPC undertook various studies to determine the environmental status of the site and took measures to ensure the public’s safety, including the demolition of derelict buildings on the site. The studies revealed that the residues produced by the foundry’s operations had extended over the entire surface area of the work site and were up to 2.4 metres thick in certain areas. These residues are leachable hazardous materials under the Regulation respecting hazardous materials. The level of contamination in the underlying soils varied based on their content of foundry residues.

The remediation project for the old working area undertaken in the fall of 2016 included the excavation and elimination of more than 12,000 m3 of hazardous materials and 12,000 m3 of contaminated soil. The project was funded mainly under the Federal Contaminated Sites Action Plan (FCSAP). The remediation work continued until March 2019. Several obstacles delayed the completion of the work and in the end, the quantities removed were 45% higher than initially estimated.

Jonathan Roussy, Environmental Specialist, Public Services and Procurement Canada
A certified geologist, Jonathan Roussy completed a master's degree in Earth Sciences at the Université Laval in 2003. For 7 years, he worked for the firm Franz Environmental and was responsible for site activities and projects involving contaminated sites. For the last 10 years, he has been working at Public Services and Procurement Canada as an environmental specialist on all aspects associated with the management of federal contaminated sites.

Using Social Justice as a Lens for Brownfield Redevelopment in Marginalized Communities
Reanne Ridsdale, Ryerson University
The objective of this presentation is to explore the meaning of social justice, environmental justice, and the benefits and burdens of brownfield redevelopment. This presentation will explain the state of practice of integrating social justice within brownfield redevelopment projects and will suggest ways forward through an early framework and tools.  

Brownfield redevelopment (BFR) can bring multifaceted benefits to neighbourhoods, both from an economic perspective and from a community development perspective. Social cohesion can be impacted when communities live in the presence of contamination and chronically underdeveloped areas. Marginalized communities face disproportionate struggles in developing and revitalizing their neighbourhoods, and often, with the presences of contaminated sites adds further barriers for future investments. Generally, marginalized communities attract less development and investment than higher income areas (Eckerd & Keeler, 2012; McCarthy, 2010, McCarthy 2009). And, brownfields and delict sites exist in poor communities at a greater proportion. Therefore, limited economic opportunities confound redevelopment efforts because brownfields can lower the rate of investment, further keeping revitalization away. At times, marginalized communities are excluded from status quo brownfield programs, as normally wealthier sites are cleaned up first (Eckerd & Keeler, 2012; McCarthy, 2010, McCarthy 2009). McCarthy (2009) posits that investments in poorer communities could result in higher dollar-for-dollar return than in wealthier communities. This strongly suggests a new innovative approach is needed.

Cities are increasingly displaying systematic disproportionate spatial inequalities, such as access to social services, investment opportunities, economic development, and poverty concentrations. This creates a specific opportunity to use social justice as a lens to target BFR projects in marginalized communities. By tailoring future funding of redevelopment projects with an explicit focus to benefit communities who need it the most.

Social justice is the “condition in which all members of society have common basic rights, security, opportunities, obligations, and social benefits” (McCarthy, 2010, p. 241). The goal of operationalizing social justice into a brownfield project is to reduce the burdens of inequalities in society. Strategic planning can elevate local brownfields policies into projects with amplified benefits for all communities, especially marginalized groups, such as Indigenous peoples in Canada.

This presentation is based on the authors research for her dissertation. This presentation will explore the meaning of social justice, environmental justice, and the benefits and burdens of brownfield redevelopment. This presentation will explain the state of practice of integrating social justice within brownfield redevelopment projects and will suggest ways forward through an early framework and tools. The research for this presentation is based on a comprehensive literature review and will include innovative examples throughout North America.

Reanne Ridsdale, PhD student, Ryerson University
Reanne Ridsdale is a PhD student at Ryerson University, receiving a Ryerson Graduate Fellowships for 2016-2019. Her research focuses on brownfield revitalization, community rejuvenation through a social justice lens, and contaminated land management on Indigenous land. She has recently taught several courses at Brandon University. In 2018, Reanne was awarded a Mitacs Accelerate Grant in partnership with the Canadian Brownfields Network (CBN) conducting a research project for the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy’s 15th year. In 2018, she received Vision CBN HUB (Hero’s Underpinning Brownfield) award. In 2015, Reanne completed her Master’s from the University of Saskatchewan. Her research was focused on how sustainability contributes to sustainable remediation, and its efficacy in decision-making. It included looking at the components of a sustainable framework, which includes robust stakeholder involvement, maintaining intergenerational goals, and achieving a socio-ecological balance. She interned with the Saskatchewan Research Council through a Mitacs Accelerate Grant. She assisted with stakeholder engagement and comprehensive community as a planning intern at PrairieWild Consulting. She is an active member of Canadian Brownfields Network, SuRF Canada, and co-authored an article with the international SuRF Initiative Team.

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