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Stream 2: Socio-economics and Indigenous Engagement
Indigenous Participation and Engagement in Federal Contracts: Doman Wood Waste Remediation
Jodee Dick1, Melissa Tokarek1, Ervin Selak2, Rachelle Ormond2
1Cowichan Tribes
2Indigenous Services Canada
The objective of this presentation is to give a Cowichan Tribes' point of view of the level of engagement, capacity development and effort required from government, private sector and an indigenous community to give indigenous companies opportunity to participate in federal remediation contracts.

The former Doman Wood Waste site (the site) is located on Cowichan Tribes Indian Reserve #1 near Duncan, BC. The site is approximately 5.44 ha and is located adjacent to the fish bearing Koksilah River which is of significant cultural importance to Cowichan Tribes. Historical use of the site included: hog fuel storage and handling from the early 1970s to 2007 by Doman Lumber Inc.; railway activities associated with a former Canadian National Railway from at least 1945 to 1988; gravel extraction; and, dumping of household and commercial wastes. The dumping of fibrous material (hog fuel), circa 1977, was an attempt to build-up soil by improving the soil quality of the native sand/gravel material. However, soil, sediment, surface water and groundwater quality on site had been impacted by these historical activities and contaminants dissolved in groundwater and surface water have migrated off-site towards the Koksilah River.

Wood waste deposit covered an estimated 43,850 m2 (85% of the site) and had an estimated volume of 56,070 m3. Tannins and lignins, natural components of wood, were detected in groundwater below the site’s wood waste deposit. Aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron and/or manganese have been measured at concentrations that exceed the applicable federal groundwater and surface quality guidelines on site. Reducing conditions produced from decaying wood waste had likely contributed to the dissociation of metals within the natural underlying alluvial sediments resulting in a plume of metals contaminated groundwater.

The remedial action plan consisted of removal of 56,000 m3 of wood waste and the construction of an access road and bridge. The remediation was almost solely completed by Cowichan Tribes member owned companies in partnership with a remedial contractor.

This presentation will give Cowichan Tribes' point of view of the level of engagement, capacity development, and effort required from government, private sector and an indigenous community to give indigenous companies opportunity to participate in federal remediation contracts.

Jodee Dick, Land Management and Economic Development Advisor, Cowichan Tribes

Implementing New Procurement Practices for the Operation of Three Soil Treatment Facilities Along the Alaska Highway from Northern BC to the Yukon
Bradley Klaver1, Guy Lavoie2, Aaron Haegele3, Vair Pointon4
1Public Services and Procurement Canada
2EnGlobe Corp
3SLR Consulting (Canada) Ltd.
4Arcadis Canada Inc.
The objective of this presentation is to to further detail the process of implementing new procurement practices, as well as explain how the above-mentioned challenges were met, indigenous benefit plan requirements exceeded and benefited to the local community. It will also seek to highlight the successful cooperation between the various parties involved, including the governmental client, both consultants, the prime contractor and the First Nations.

The Alaska Highway was built 75 years ago during the Second World War by the US Army and transferred to Canada after the war. Public Services and Procurement Canada (PSPC) has been acting as a responsible owner to ensure the asset is safe for use. Remediation projects related to maintenance camps have been issued for years up and down the highway to help clean up historical contamination related to war-time activities. PSPC Pacific Region, issued a request for information (RFI) in early 2019 as part of the Canadian Government’s goal of modernizing procurement practices. The objective of the RFI was to determine how to increase participation of the local First Nations contracts for the PSPC operated section of the Highway. This led to the subject request for proposal which included a requirement for bidders to engage with the local First Nation groups and submit an indigenous benefits plan (IBP) detailing their participation in the project. The IBP required bidders to include a plan for subcontracting, employment and other measures for local Indigenous peoples throughout the duration of the project. Through this new procurement process, Englobe Corp collaborated with Iyon Kechika, a local Deylu Dena Council enterprise and was awarded the contract for the 2019 soil treatment facilities operations along the Alaska Highway, aimed at re-using treated soils instead of disposing them in a landfill. This mandate included the concurrent operation of three sites (Iron Creek, JJJ GravelPit, and Km 713 GravelPit) located on properties adjacent to the Iron Creek Maintenance Camp in the Yukon, the Fireside Maintenance Camp in British Columbia and the Muncho Lake Maintenance Camp in British Columbia. Field operations were supervised by PSPC’s consultants, SLR Consulting (Canada) Ltd., responsible for the Iron Creek site, while Arcadis Canada Inc. was responsible for the JJJ and KM 713 sites. The minimum work guarantee to Iyon Kechika was 15% but the end result was between 35-40%.

The operational challenges encountered within this mandate were categorised into three main themes: logistical challenges related to the remote location and a short timeframe to start the work; technical challenges related to cold weather and jurisdictional regulations; and finally, communication challenges related to the number of parties involved in the project. More specifically, the remote location of operations, including the distance between the sites, the distance from the sites to the closest towns, the distance to transport samples to the laboratory including analytical result turn around-time, the mobilization of multiple field crews, the lack of communication network coverage at the three sites, and the lack of local amenities in the surrounding region had to be considered to ensure the efficacy of operations and ultimately, meet project timelines. Jurisdictional regulations, including complying with landfill or treatment facility permits, interprovincial water disposal regulations, transportation manifests, federal and provincial soil and water sampling criteria had to be accounted for.

This presentation will further detail the process of implementing new procurement practices, as well as explain how the above-mentioned challenges were met, IBP requirements exceeded and benefited to the local community. It will also seek to highlight the successful cooperation between the various parties involved, namely the governmental client, PSPC; the consultants, SLR and Arcadis; the prime contractor, Englobe; and, the First Nations, Iyon Kechika.

Bradley Klaver, Senior Environmental Specialist, Pacific Region, Public Services and Procurement Canada
Bradley Klaver is a Senior Environmental Specialist with Public Services and Procurement Canada (PSPC) in the Pacific Region. Bradley has worked as a project manager for PSPC for the past 12 years, responsible for remediation and risk assessment projects in BC and the Yukon. He’s managed projects on behalf of several government departments, including Environment and Climate Change Canada, Transport Canada, Correctional Service Canada and PSPC’s Infrastructure and Asset Management Directorate.

Guy Lavoie, Team Leader and Senior Project Director, Environmental Engineering, Northern Canada, Englobe Corp
Guy Lavoie has 27 years of experience and has successfully completed large scale site remediation projects throughout Canada and the United States with provincial and federal organizations such as Defence Construction Canada/Department of National Defence and Public Services and Procurement Canada as well as with major oil companies such as ExxonMobil, Imperial Oil, Shell and ConocoPhillips.

Guy joined the company in 1997 and occupied different roles in various divisions of Englobe Corp. He was appointed Project manager in 2001 and Project director in 2005 and is since managing projects throughout the country. Guy is a member of the Association of Science and Engineering Technology Professionals of Alberta, as a Certified Engineering Technologist, and also hold a Project Management Professional (PMP®) certification, delivered by the Project Management Institute.

Maximizing Community Benefits and Sustainability through Integrated Project Delivery – Bearskin Lake First Nation Remediation Case Study
Kerri Hurley1, Julieta Werner1, Mary Johnson2
1Indigenous Services Canada
2Stantec Consulting Limited
The objective of this presentation is to demonstrate the successful delivery of an integrated project that included a large-scale remediation, landfill upgrade and a new fuel storage and management facility. The presentation will cover the challenges of project delivery in a remote First Nation community, and showcase how effective project team communication and collaboration, and First Nation engagement were key to the overall project success.

Bearskin Lake First Nation is an Oji-Cree Nation located approximately 630 km northwest of Thunder Bay, Ontario. The community is accessible only by air year-round. An annual winter road is open for approximately four to six weeks between January and March, allowing vehicle access and for transport of various goods, equipment and materials to/from the community.

Working in remote First Nation communities presents unique challenges. For project success, it is critical that all members of a project team work together in an open, honest and collaborative way to come up with innovative mitigation strategies and/or solutions that are sustainable and that meet the objectives of the project. This case study will showcase how the project team was able work together to leverage funding from multiple programs to maximize the environmental and economic benefit to the community, while maintaining deference to the funding application and approvals process. This phased project was executed over three construction seasons and included two separate public construction tenders, as well as ongoing in-situ and an ex-situ soil treatment.

The major project components included: the remediation of ten petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites with a combined volume of approximately 35,300 m3 of contaminated soil; treatment of contaminated groundwater using multiple systems; the re-design and upgrade of the community landfill site and soil treatment facility; and, demolition of five buildings containing hazardous materials, construction of three new buildings, structural support of two large community buildings, and the decommissioning of non-compliant bulk fuel storage tanks followed by construction of a new state-of-the-art bulk fuel storage and management facility. A significant volume of lesser contaminated soil was sustainably repurposed to cover, re-grade and berm areas of the landfill. The procurement integration was advantageous and resulted in a cost effective and time efficient implementation; sharing resources has huge benefits in the remote north.

Another key factor in the success of this project, was the development of an engagement program with the objectives of coordinating and presenting technical information for community information meetings and presentations, to be conducted before, during, and after completion of the project work. A Communication and Safety Team (CAST) was specifically established for this project. The CAST included representatives from Bearskin Lake First Nation leadership and membership, various community agencies, and from the construction and consulting firms working on the project. One of the key functions of the CAST was to serve a liaison between the membership and the project team, as well as provide community members with a real-time source for information and a familiar forum in which to ask questions and/or identify concerns.

The presentation will give an overview of this successful project by highlighting how local economic benefits were maximized through the employment of local labour, equipment, and training; how the manner in which the project was completed has resulted in lasting environmental and economic benefits for the community; how the project objectives were met thereby successfully mitigating the Federal environmental liability; and, how project team representatives from various groups collaborated through the development, design, approval, and implementation of this multi-faceted and multi-phased project.

Kerri Hurley, Senior Environment Officer, Ontario Region, Indigenous Services Canada
Kerri Hurley is a Senior Environment Officer with Indigenous Services Canada (ISC), Ontario Region. She is the regional lead for ISC’s Contaminated Sites Management Program. Kerri has been working in the department for 16 years, 13 of which focused substantially on the assessment, remediation and risk management of contaminated sites in First Nation communities.

The Development of Effective First Nations, Public and Internal Stakeholder Engagement Tools in Esquimalt Harbour Projects
Michael Bodman1, Andrew Smith2, Leroy Bannack3
1Department of National Defence
2Public Services and Procurement Canada
3F&M Management Ltd.
The objective of this presentation is to highlight the communication tools and strategies used to engage First Nations, the public and internal stakeholders as part of the effective delivery of multiple marine construction and sediment remediation projects in Esquimalt Harbour.

The Government of Canada is investing significant resources into recapitalizing federal infrastructure at Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Esquimalt as well as removing contaminated sediments from Esquimalt Harbour. Esquimalt Harbour is within the traditional territory of the Esquimalt Nation and Songhees Nation and is also surrounded by three municipalities. Moreover, Esquimalt Harbour is home to Public Services and Procurement Canada’s Esquimalt Graving Dock (a facility which completes a significant volume of ship construction and repair) as well as the Royal Canadian Navy’s Pacific Fleet. The successful implementation of a number of concurrent marine infrastructure and remediation projects in a small body of water, like Esquimalt Harbour, with a vast number of interested parties requires the development and implementation of a robust set of engagement and communication tools.

The Department of National Defence (DND) recognizes the importance of its relationship with Esquimalt Nation and Songhees Nation who include Esquimalt Harbour as part of their traditional territories. This relationship has created opportunities to generate economic benefits for neighboring Nations as well as integrate the traditional ecological knowledge and customs into the construction and remediation projects.

CFB Esquimalt, and the construction and remediation projects being implemented there, have also taken an active approach to engaging the surrounding public. Public information sessions, social media and community events are some of the tools being used to give the public an opportunity to learn about what is happening at CFB Esquimalt but also opportunities to provide their input and feedback.

At CFB Esquimalt there are a vast number of internal stakeholders associated with ensuring the operational readiness of the Pacific Fleet as well as with all of the construction and remediation projects being implemented in Esquimalt Harbour. To help ensure the ongoing Navy operations effectively coexist with all of the construction and remediation projects, a series of visual communication tools were developed. These tools allowed relevant planning information to flow between stakeholders effectively and each stakeholder could utilize the information for their own planning purposes. These new tools also simplified the communication of complex activities and provided many overall benefits to the project including:

• A visual tool that allowed the Executive Team to be easily updated on planned Harbour activity on a weekly basis;
• The reduction of many of the project risk factors identified across the program in Esquimalt Harbour (e.g., conflicts between the remedial program, the construction program and/or the operational program); and,
• The visual communication of the remedial sequencing aided both the integration with other harbour projects, as well as helped identify areas subject to the risk of recontamination.

These communication tools are utilized in regular briefings and support the effective governance of the significant volume of capabilities, programs and projects being delivered at CFB Esquimalt.

Project Manager, Esquimalt Harbour Remediation Project, Department of National Defence

Michael Bodman, B.Sc., PMP, is the Esquimalt Harbour Remediation Officer at Maritime Forces Pacific based in Esquimalt, British Columbia. Michael has been an environmental professional for 19 years and is currently the Project Manager of the Esquimalt Harbour Remediation Project (EHRP). In addition to the EHRP-related duties, Michael provides environmental support to other major capital construction projects at Canadian Forces Base Esquimalt. He has also worked on a range of environmental programs related to environmental assessments, solid waste management, environmental audits, air quality and pollution prevention.

Socio-economics and Indigenous Engagement at Y Jetty and Lang Cove Sediment Remediation Project, Esquimalt, BC
Emmanuel Saydeh1, Eric Pringle1, Andrew Smith2 
1Milestone Environmental Contracting Inc.
2Public Services and Procurement Canada
The objective of this presentation is to share the successes achieved in applying creative procurement processes to encourage and support meaningful business development and socio-economic outcomes for indigenous communities.

The As part of a successful contract award with Public Services and Procurement Canada (PSPC) for the Remediation of Y Jetty and Lang Cove in CFB Esquimalt for the Department of National Defense, Milestone Environmental Contracting Inc. successfully completed an Indigenous Benefit Plan (IBP) with the Songhees Nation and the Esquimalt Nation, of the Lekwungen Peoples. As part of this presentation, the IBP requirements and the lessons learned will be reviewed, as well as some of the unique aspects built into the program.

As part of the Federal Government's commitment to encourage Indigenous participation in procurement opportunities to support business development and socio-economic outcomes that support the path to self-determination, the procurement contained an optional point rated IBP component that asked the contractor to provide socio-economic benefits to Indigenous People and Indigenous firms of the Esquimalt and Songhees Nations.

The contract, estimated at $30,000,000, was awarded based on a two-envelope “best overall proposal” competitive procurement strategy. The value of the optional IBP program in the proposal scoring was 10%. The IBP addressed four aspects: training, employment, goods and services, and community benefits. A key aspect of the program was the successful employment of up to 15 Indigenous team members, involved in all facets of screening and processing of archeological artifacts and potential unexploded ordnances (UXO).

Eric Pringle, Regional Manager, Western Region, Milestone Environmental Contracting Inc.
Eric Pringle, Regional Manager, Western Region, based in Langley, BC. Eric has over 30 years of experience in the environmental and remediation industry. As a Partner and Regional Manager with Milestone Environmental Contracting Inc., he leads a team of engineers, scientist, and major project and technical specialist in the fields of environmental remediation and specialized contracting. As a Regional Manager, he is responsible for several private and public accounts for environmental remediation projects and initiatives for various industries, indigenous communities, all levels of government and agencies throughout Canada. As a professional engineer, Eric is well known for his extensive experience in brownfield redevelopment and environmental contracting. Eric also serves as a senior technical peer reviewer for the entire project team. Under his leadership, Milestone has experienced exponential growth, and has lead to Milestone being ranked and listed as one of Canada’s 500 fastest growing company in 2019, by the Canadian Business and Maclean Magazines GROWTH 500.

Before joining Milestone, Eric was a Principle and VP at Hemmera Envirochem Inc. from 2000-2014, Manager Pacific Region with Conor Pacific ET from 1997-2000, and was an Environmental Engineer with Gartner Lee Limited from 1988-1996.

Building Community Support for Data-Driven Contaminated Site Remediation: A Case Study
Sheila Barter1, Kerri Hurley2, Stefano Marconetto1, Lina Letiecq2, Jennifer Shearn3
1Golder Associates Ltd.
2Indigenous Services Canada
3Public Services and Procurement Canada
The objective of this presentation is to provide an overview of the successes and lessons learned at a complex contaminated site project at Couchiching First Nation in northwestern Ontario. The main focus will be on the various ways the project team has worked alongside local community members and leadership and how the First Nation’s view of sustainable site redevelopment was interactively defined with community members.

The presence of contaminated sites on First Nation Reserve lands is a long-standing challenge in Canada. Building relationships with the First Nation communities where we work, providing sustainable solutions and bringing an attitude of cooperation and open dialogue is a crucial requirement for successful remediation and redevelopment of Indigenous land that has been impacted by industrial activities. We are the experts in the science and the community members are the experts in their vision for the future of their communities.

How do we foster that cooperation and dialogue? How do we work with Indigenous communities to understand their concept of sustainability and identify technical solutions to achieve their site clean-up and redevelopment goals?

This presentation will give an overview of the successes and lessons learned during four years of involvement at a complex contaminated site project at Couchiching First Nation in northwestern Ontario, Canada. From an extensive sampling program examining the quality/health of soil, sediment, water, air, plants and animals on a large site that was exposed to a century of industrial use and subject to several contaminants ranging from dioxins to hydrocarbons and metals; to community workshops, kitchen table conversations, and interactive planning sessions with the key First Nation decision makers, the project team has worked alongside local community members and leadership to rekindle a vision for the site that has been a scar in the community for decades. Community engagement consisted of a broad-based approach including regular meetings with key decision makers and community groups, open houses, door-to-door surveys, involvement in project work, etc., and it proved to be effective because of the genuine interest by all the stakeholders involved to achieve a common goal for the site. Thanks to the trust and mutual respect developed between Couchiching First Nation and the technical team, the main project stakeholders discussed the future of the site together, developed a vision and selected the most appropriate remedial options to support that vision. This presentation will discuss how the First Nation’s view of long-term, sustainable site redevelopment was interactively defined with community members. This vision was incorporated in the use of risk assessment to identify site specific concerns to human and ecological health, as well as through the inclusion of economic, social and environmental sustainability criteria in the decision matrix for selection of remedial technologies. The resulting conceptual remediation plan incorporates a variety of technologies, such as in-situ chemical oxidation, bioremediation and capping, to enable the First Nation to safely and confidently redevelop the site based on their vision, while reducing the carbon footprint of the planned site remediation.

Sheila Barter, Environmental Consultant, Golder Associates Ltd.
Sheila Barter is an Environmental Consultant with Golder Associates Ltd. in Ottawa. She is responsible for the planning, management and execution of environmental projects under provincial and federal jurisdiction including Phase I, II and III environmental site assessments and remediation projects. Sheila has six years of experience in environmental consulting focused on contaminated lands in Canada and internationally. She has 13 years of additional professional experience with the federal government, education and private industry.

Innovative Community Engagement for the Quantitative Risk Assessment of the Giant Mine Reclamation and Closure Plan
Stefan Reinecke1, Michael Shoesmith1, Lee Christoffersen2, Emma Mckennirey3, Lynn Pilgrim4, David Rae4
1Stratos Inc.
3Crown Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs
4Wood PLC
The objective of this presentation is to describe an innovative, fit-for-purpose engagement process to complete a quantitative risk assessment, including co-development of consequence criteria and risk acceptability thresholds, and the identification and assessment of risk scenarios with Yellowknives Dene First Nation and North Slave Métis Aalliance community members.

Following the discovery of gold in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (Canada), Giant Mine officially opened in 1948. Mining activities ceased shortly after the mine’s owner went bankrupt in 1999. Since 2004, the mine has been the responsibility of Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada (CIRNAC). Historical activities at the mine have resulted in the generation of arsenic trioxide dust stored in underground chambers, contaminated soil and waste rock, tailings containment areas, open pits, and contaminated water and sediment in Baker Creek, which traverses the mine site. The site has been undergoing progressive reclamation since 2005, with final closure activities anticipated to be implemented in 2021. The roughly 50-year operating period of the mine resulted in significant disturbance and impacts on the health and way of life of local people, especially members of the Yellowknives Dene First Nation (YKDFN) and the North Slave Métis Alliance (NSMA). Giant Mine is within the Akaitcho Dene asserted territory, is close to the YKDFN communities of N’Dilo and Dettah and is within the traditional land use area of the Tlicho, known as Mowhi Gogha De Niitlee. Giant Mine is also situated within the municipal boundaries of the City of Yellowknife.

The closure and reclamation plan for Giant Mine was submitted in April 2019 to the Mackenzie Valley Land and Water Board for approval. As part of the approval process to commence remediation activities, the project team is required to complete a quantitative risk assessment (QRA). There is an explicit requirement to determine acceptability thresholds in consultation with potentially affected communities and to examine risks from a holistic perspective that includes environmental, social, health and financial effects. The approval and implementation of the closure and reclamation plan is also occurring within the broader context of reconciliation with Indigenous people in Canada and growing requirements for the federal government to meaningfully engage Indigenous people on actions affecting their lands and resources. Together, these requirements present a unique challenge for the Giant Mine QRA as potentially affected communities rarely participate in, or provide specific input, to this type of risk process.

This presentation describes an innovative, fit-for-purpose engagement process to complete the QRA, including co-development of consequence criteria and risk acceptability thresholds, and the identification and assessment of risk scenarios with YKDFN and NSMA community members.

Stefan Reinecke, Partner, Stratos Inc.
Stefan Reinecke is a partner at Stratos Inc. and leads its risk practice. Trained as a civil engineer, with a focus on the environment and water resource management, he brings technical insight and experience to Stratos’s management and strategic advice. Stefan works primarily in the mining and energy sectors, providing private and public sector clients with a range of services including risk management; sustainability program design and implementation; and, engagement design and facilitation. Stefan has led a number of studies to inform policy, protocols and management approaches on such issues as shadow carbon pricing, climate change risk in mining, and water stewardship. He has also played a key role in designing and implementing the risk management framework for Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada’s portfolio of abandoned mine sites in Canada’s north. Stefan holds engineering degrees from the University of Toronto and the University of Waterloo.

How the Giant Mine Remediation Project is Working Towards Reconciliation Through Socio-Economic Opportunities
Andrei Torianski and Natalie Plato
Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs
The objective of this presentation is to to introduce participants to the socio-economic strategy the Giant Mine Remediation Project developed.

The Giant Mine Remediation Project’s socio-economic strategy was developed to ensure Northerners and Indigenous persons are positioned to benefit from employment opportunities that result from the remediation of the Giant Mine site.

The strategy includes measures to reduce and limit barriers that might prevent Indigenous and Northern persons, including those living in the Monfwi Gogha De Niitlee claim area, from successfully participating in employment opportunities that arise out of the Giant Mine site’s remediation. This is in keeping with Canada’s commitment to reconciliation with Indigenous peoples, encouraging their participation in the economy and contributing to a strong and prosperous Canada.

The Giant Mine Remediation Project recognizes the potential impact of the Giant Mine remediation on the Northern economy. As such, the team is working closely with other groups within Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada, the Government of the Northwest Territories, Indigenous governments, other federal departments, the City of Yellowknife, community groups, and local service providers to promote capacity-building to ensure we work together to maximize the benefits to Northern and Indigenous communities and businesses.

As part of the strategy’s implementation process, the project team developed key performance indicators to monitor the socio-economic impacts of the Giant Mine remediation and is currently working on developing a set of targets to measure the project’s performance against. In addition, two new governance bodies were established in 2018: a Socio-economic Working Group; and, a Socio-economic Advisory Body. The Socio-economic Working Group, with team members from federal, territorial and municipal governments, shares information and works to advance socio-economic activities for the project. The Socio-economic Advisory Body provides advice to the Socio-economic Working Group and acts as senior government champions; its members include senior level representatives from federal, territorial, municipal, and Indigenous partner organizations.

Natalie Plato, Deputy Director, Giant Mine Remediation Project, Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada
Natalie Plato is the Deputy Director for the Giant Mine Remediation Project based out of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories.

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