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Stream 1: Port Planning and Operation


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Challenges in Preparing a Repair Facility for the Arrival of Dual Fuelled Vessels
Stafford Bingham1 and Andrew Kendrick2
1Public Services and Procurement Canada
2Vard Marine Inc.

The objective of this presentation is to provide the audience with an overview of the process and implementation steps taken to prepare a major, publicly owned, multi-user ship repair facility to safely allow dual-fueled (diesel/LNG) vessels to be docked and repaired.


The Esquimalt Graving Dock (EGD) is a ship repair and maintenance center located near Victoria, British Columbia. The EGD is the largest non-military-fixed-foundation dry-dock on the West Coast of the Americas. It is owned and operated by Public Services and Procurement Canada (PSPC) and is utilized by private firms for maintaining a variety of vessels including cruise ships, ferries, government vessels, and other commercial vessels. To date, the vessels maintained at the EGD have been fueled by traditional marine fuels such as gas oil/diesel or heavy fuel oil.

The use of natural gas as a marine fuel is becoming more common as regulatory requirements, environmental considerations, and economic advantages make the fuel an attractive alternative to utilizing traditional fuels. In late 2016, early 2017, five new natural gas fueled ships arrived on the West Coast of Canada. Seaspan Ferry Corporation’s Seaspan Swift and Seaspan Reliant entered service in January and April respectively while BC Ferries has taken delivery of three new Salish Class Ferries, the M.V. Orca, Eagle and Raven. It is anticipated that these vessels will be followed by at least four additional ships in the next two years. These are all dual-fuel ships, using liquefied natural gas (LNG) as the primary fuel, but also able to use standard marine diesel. LNG is stored onboard in liquid form at cryogenic temperatures.

Key properties of natural gas (NG) and LNG differ from marine gas oil/diesel or heavy fuel oil and require special consideration by a shipyard undertaking maintenance on these vessels. Natural gas has a flash point of approximately -187 °C which introduces new hazards when compared with ships utilizing diesel or heavy fuel oils (these fuels typically have a flash point above 60°C). Cryogenic hazards also need to be considered since LNG’s typical storage temperature is -161°C.

A risk assessment has been undertaken to assess the risks associated with gas-fueled ships being maintained and repaired at EGD. The assessment included a HazID workshop involving a range of EGD users and stakeholders, which was used to create a comprehensive list of potential hazards, current safeguards, and potential future safety measures for handling such ships.

The next step was to produce a series of Standard Operating Procedures to instruct and guide EGD Employees, ship repair firms, ship owners and emergency response personnel in the steps to take to mitigate the risks associated with LNG fueled vessels arriving, being worked on and departing the EGD. In addition, physical changes had to be made to the EGD in order to mitigate actual risks determined during the HazID.

The final step will be to monitor and analyze the procedures being used as we gain experience and confidence in the processes and to modify procedures and equipment as required.

Presenter Bio

Stafford Bingham, Director, Esquimalt Graving Dock, Public Services and Procurement Canada
Stafford Bingham graduated from the Canadian Coast Guard Officer Training College in Sydney Nova Scotia in 1974. From 1974 to 1988 he worked at sea on a variety of government and non-government vessels. He holds a Canadian First Class Motor Engineering Certificate of Competency issued by Transport Canada. He joined Public Services and Procurement Canada in January 1988 and in November 2015, he took on the role of Director at the Esquimalt Graving Dock (EGD). He is responsible for overseeing EGD operations and the related services provided to the ship repair industries at the facility.

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Comprehensive Commissioning Benefits for Building Owners During Design, Construction, and Beyond
Bryan Low and Rodger Kuo
Port of Los Angeles

The objective of this presentation is to discuss the comprehensive building systems commissioning process and how the process benefits the building owner during design, construction, and through the life of the building and its systems. The presentation provides a perspective from the owner's representative with situational and process details that will provide insight to any project team.


In February of 2013, the Port of Los Angeles (POLA) began construction of its very first LEED certified terminal building; the administration building for Rear Berths 136-139 TraPac Terminal. POLA’s Board of Harbor Commissioners adopted a policy in 2007 that required all newly constructed buildings over 7,500 square feet to obtain LEED certification. LEED stands for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, and is a guideline by U.S. Green Building Council to promote sustainable building design and construction. This presentation focuses on Enhanced Commissioning, one of the more important components of LEED for facility owners, designers, building systems engineers, and tenants. Owners and tenants alike want comfortable indoor environments with building systems that operate efficiently, limit maintenance, and ultimately help foster the type of environment that achieves their goals. Comprehensive Commissioning outlines a process that holds accountable the contractor, the owner, and end user to the goals of the project and each other. The entire process begins from concept to post occupancy. A Commissioning Agent is required, independent from the design and construction teams, who can guide the owner, designers, contractor, installers, users, and maintenance crew to construct, use, and maintain the best building the project parameters will allow. Benefits of Comprehensive Commissioning include operational cost savings, catching installation mistakes, addressing occupant discomforts, enhancing indoor air quality and thermal comfort, prolonging equipment lifespans, lowering the risk of litigation, and training of the users to operate the building more efficiently. Comprehensive Commissioning has proven to be so successful that many local jurisdictions are adopting it, such as the CalGreen code for California and Green Building plan check in the City of Los Angeles. Comprehensive Commissioning is a beneficial process for all.

Presenter Bio

Bryan Low, AIA, CMP, Architect, Port of Los Angeles
Bryan Low, AIA, CPM is an Architect at the Port of Los Angeles with 10 years of experience as an owners representative. He oversees an architecture section that provides project management for tenant improvements, community projects, and terminal development such as the Trapac Terminal Expansion at Rear Berths 136-139. Bryan had the opportunity to speak at the Ports '16 conference in New Orleans and in Los Angeles at an ASCE event receiving recognition as a distinguished speaker. He graduated from Woodbury University in Burbank, CA with a Bachelor's in Architecture. He also received his Project Management Certificate from UCLA. As a former member of the Harbor Department's Speakers Bureau, Bryan has had the opportunity to share insight about architecture, engineering, and Port operations to various schools and organizations in Los Angeles and Orange Counties.

Rodger Kuo, AIA, LEED AP, CDT, Architect, Engineering Division, Port of Los Angeles
Rodger Kuo, AIA, LEED AP, CDT is an Architect in the Engineering Division at the Port of Los Angeles with over 16 years of experience in sustainable building and site development. He oversees a group of Associates that provide services from conceptual design to construction support on a variety of projects within the Port property that include new and existing buildings, recreational parks and facilities, space planning, public beautification, and terminal operations facilities. He helped develop and implement the Port's Green Building Policy instituted in 2007 that sets a minimum LEED Gold Certification for buildings over 7,500 square feet as well as define the Waterfront and Sustainability Guidelines. Rodger regularly advises his colleagues from Engineering, Real Estate, Planning, Construction and Maintenance Divisions on tenant and public related concerns. Before joining the Port, he worked at AC Martin, Leo A. Daly, and HMC. He has a Bachelor's and Master's degree from University of Southern California School of Architecture. He is honored to be working for the nation's leading container port and is continually establishing a high industry standard for the built environment.

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Quantification and Use of Resilience as a Coastal Planning and Management Tool
Wim van der Molen, Yahia Kala, Rob Nairn, Seth Logan 
Baird & Associates

The objective of this presentation is to increase awareness on the topic of resilience as it applies to planning and management, and to provide ideas on how to assess it. 


Over the past few decades, increasing pressures are felt by coastal regions to cope with the risks of flooding, earthquakes, and other disruptive events. This is caused by a combination of rapid development in coastal areas, land subsidence, and sea level rise. Efforts have been made to address the problem using methods and tools that have evolved significantly over time. The current methods focus on the quantification of risk, which is the probability of a disruptive event multiplied by the consequences (usually expressed as a currency/dollar value).

Conventional risk analyses focus on the immediate consequences of flooding such as property damage and the population exposed to floodwaters. They do not often consider the time it takes for coastal systems to fully recover, which could take months or years. This is relevant for communities, but also for commercial infrastructure such as ports and container terminals, which could be harmed by a disruption in operations after a storm or natural disaster.

An alternative method that has emerged in the recent literature is the use of resilience as an assessment metric. Resilience can be defined as the ability of a system to withstand and recover rapidly from disruptions. Resilience as a quantitative metric allows decision makers to consider not just the robustness of a system (the ability to withstand a storm event), but also the rapidity (the ability to recover rapidly from a damaged state). Extensive dialogue on resilience has occurred especially in the USA after hurricanes Katrina and Sandy, and is also expected to take place more extensively in Canada.

Resilience assessments can be used to look at the functional performance of a system and how that performance is affected (both immediately and over time) due to disruptions. We have quantified resilience probabilistically using a Bayesian network. This methodology allows decision makers to set management objectives that describe the maximum allowable damage and recovery time. This can be more intuitive than annual risk thresholds. Moreover, it is possible to explicitly include uncertainties in the severity of the events and the uncertainty how the system responds to the event.

An example application is shown for the development of the Waterfront of Toronto near the Don River mouth. This area presently consists of relatively low-value commercial and industrial buildings that are flooded during extreme discharges at the Don River. The City of Toronto has planned to redevelop the area with high-value residential and commercial buildings in three phases. The presentation aims to show how the resilience is impacted between the subsequent phases and how this tool can be used by decision makers to compare different infrastructure alternatives.

Presenter Bio

Dr. Rob Nairn, Principal, Baird & Associates
Dr. Rob Nairn is a recognized coastal engineering expert with 35 years’ experience on hydrodynamics, sediment transport and scour processes in rivers, estuaries, lakes, coasts and oceans. Rob is responsible for a range of coastal zone planning, management and engineering investigations, numerical and physical modelling and design projects. He is a Principal of Baird & Associates. Rob has managed many of Baird’s international projects in the Middle East, the Caribbean, Central and South America, Africa, Asia and Europe. Rob addressed plenary sessions of the Coastal Engineering Research Board (CERB) of the US Army Corps of Engineers in addition to the Association of Coastal Engineers (ACE). His assessment of the scour potential of the Confederation Bridge has been described in various publications including the ASCE Civil Engineering magazine.

Dr. Wim van der Molen, Senior Coastal Engineer, Baird & Associates
Dr. Wim van der Molen is a recognized international expert in the development and application of sophisticated state-of-the-art numerical models for wave-ship interaction, passing ship effects, and moored ship response. He specializes in the analysis and modeling of long waves in harbours and the effect on ships moored in a harbour. Wim has gained valuable practical experience on physical modeling of wave propagation and moored ship response on large projects worldwide and developed unique measurement methods for waves and moored ship motions. His experience also extends to real-time ship manoeuvring simulations for the design of shipping channels. He is responsible for the set-up and quality control of port operability and ship navigation projects at Baird & Associates.

Yahia Kala, Coastal EIT, Baird & Associates
Yahia Kala is a coastal engineer in training (EIT). He has three years of experience in the field of water engineering including water resources, environmental, and coastal engineering. Yahia obtained a Bachelor of Applied Science Degree from the University of Waterloo in 2014 and a Master of Science Degree from the Delft University of Technology in 2016. Yahia’s work at Baird covers a range of projects involving water quality, contaminant transport, waves and hydrodynamics, and coastal flooding. His main areas of interest are in coastal modelling and flood risk.

Seth Logan, Coastal Engineer, Baird & Associates
Seth Logan is a Coastal Engineer with a Bachelors degree from Queen’s University, a Masters degree from the University of Ottawa, and a professional engineering license in the province of Ontario. Seth completed his post graduate thesis on coastal engineering with a focus on tidal inlet morphology. His skillset includes: engineering analysis of environmental conditions; a strong understanding of sediment transport and coastal morphology; port operation; risk and discrete event modeling; the design and configuration of coastal structures; and, hydrodynamic and morphodynamic numerical modeling. Seth has authored several papers and been a presenter at multiple conferences including the 2011 Canadian Hydrotechnical Conference in Ottawa, the 2012 International Conference on Coastal Engineering in Santander, Spain, and the 2016 International Conference on the Application of Physical Modelling in Coastal and Port Engineering and Science.

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Iqaluit and Pond Inlet Port Developments
Harald Kullman1, Juanie Pudluk2 & Paul Mulak2
1Worley Parsons
2Government of Nunavut

The objective of this presentation is to describe the development two new port facilities in the Canadian Arctic that will service the subsistence fishers and dry cargo resupply for the local communities. 


The Government of Nunavut is in the advanced stages of planning for new marine infrastructure for the City of Iqaluit and the Hamlet of Pond Inlet, which both rely heavily on the resupply support from the annual sealift during the open water season using marine cargo carriers from the south. The projects are jointly funded by the federal New Building Canada Fund and the Government of Nunavut.

Iqaluit, the capital city of Nunavut, has operated for decades without any significant marine infrastructure, forcing the dry cargo carriers to anchor offshore and, using small tugs and barges from aboard the vessel, to lighter the cargo ashore. With an extreme tide range exceeding 12 metres and wide tidal beaches, the Iqaluit sealift operations experiences considerable delays.

Pond Inlet, a small community at the north end of Baffin Island, has essentially no marine infrastructure and has arguably the most exposed shoreline of any community in the Canadian Arctic. Both annual sealift and the many subsistence fishers compete for the only accessible, yet exposed, portion of the community's beach for marine access.

This presentation will describe the planning and design for the new marine infrastructure at Iqaluit and Pond Inlet and some of the challenges that are being faced.

Presenter Bio

Harald Kullmann, Senior Project Manager, Ports and Harbours, Advisian-WorleyParsons
Harald Kullmann is a senior port development engineer with Advisian-WorleyParsons practicing from the Vancouver office for the past 25 years. He is the engineer of record for the deep sea wharf at Vale Inco’s nickel mine at Voisey’s Bay in Labrador, Glencore Nickel’s deep sea wharf at Deception Bay in Nunavik, and other mines in the Canadian Arctic. Harald has been working with the Government of Nunavut on the Iqaluit and Pond Inlet projects as far back as 2009. His other port development assignments have taken him across the Canadian Arctic, Greenland and Alaska. He is currently also leading the Nanisivik Naval Facility for the Department of National Defence.

Juanie Pudluk, Manager, Capital Projects, Government of Nunavut
Juanie Pudluk has been the manager of Capital Projects for the Government of Nunavut for the past few months. His prior experience is with Qulliq Energy Corporation in Iqaluit installing generators in many northern arctic communities. Marine infrastructure projects lead by the GN included the Iqaluit Deep Sea Port, the Iqaluit small craft harbour, and Pond Inlet’s small craft harbour.

Paul Mulak, Director, Capital Projects, Government of Nunavut
Bio coming soon. 

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Port of Saint John West Side Terminals Modernization Project
Darcy HarrisDillon Consulting

The objective of this presentation is to detail the purpose, plan and schedule for the West Side Terminals Modernization Project being undertaken by the Port of Saint John.  


The Port of Saint John (PSJ) is one of the major ports in the Atlantic Gateway, ideally situated with some of the deepest ice-free tidal waters in Canada. The PSJ’s container traffic has nearly doubled since 2012 to over 100,000 TEU’s (twenty-foot equivalent unit) annually. Additionally, the Panama Canal Expansion Project was opened on June 26, 2016 allowing for larger vessels to transfer between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. To compete and grow on the world stage a terminal upgrade to the PSJ is essential to accommodate larger vessels and have the proper handling capability required to service modern fleets.

The PSJ undertook a study that identified the expansion elements required to increase the annual TEU throughput to 650,000. The result was the development of a phased approach over seven years to expand and modernize container terminal, all the while maintaining current operations at the Port. The anticipated cost for the project including design, engineering and construction is $205 million with contributions coming from the Port, Government of Canada and the Province of New Brunswick. The first phase of the expansion would support up to 320,000 TEU’s per annum.

The modernization project will allow the Port to:

  • Provide a modern facility capable of handling ships up to the New Panamax Canal vessel size;
  • Improve cost efficiencies by introducing a new operational system and technology to enhance cargo handling capabilities;
  • Provide 25 acres of container storage and 10 acres for a new multimodal yard, with the remainder to be utilized for terminal access roads, stevedoring operations, warehousing, and lay-down areas for breakbulk and project cargoes;
  • Reduce operational restrictions by dredging the main channel to allow for New Panamax vessels and increase operational windows for other vessel sizes; and,
  • Improve intermodal connections at the Port which will allow for greater capacity for rail handling and truck movements at the Port. 

In addition to the four major terminal components, the terminal requires a number of ancillary facilities that support container operations. These primarily include: lighting upgrades, reefer outlets, site services upgrades, radiation portal monitors, container yard upgrades and electrical distribution upgrades.

Presenter Bio

Darcy Harris, Partner, Dillon Consulting
Darcy Harris is a Partner and civil engineer with 18 years of experience as national manager, project manager and design engineer on a variety of infrastructure projects, including marine infrastructure, heavy civil, buildings, water, sanitary and storm sewer, as well as road construction and site development. His work experience has included project management, construction management, design, preparation of project drawings, liaison with approval agencies, project budget management, verification of quantities, negotiations with contractors, preparation of construction reports and monthly progress claims. Darcy has also been employed in the Contractor Industry in Bridge Construction as well as a regulator on Highway Construction.

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Harbor Upgrade Investment Priorities in the Big Ship Era
Krystle McBride

The objective of this presentation is to discuss the impact of ever-larger ships and their navigational constraints on dredging and infrastructure upgrade investments decisions, and show how simulation modeling can aid in evaluating investment opportunities.


Vessel sizes have increased rapidly over the past two decades, from a largest containership size of under 10,000 TEU (twenty-foot equivalent unit) in the early 2000’s, to 21,000+ TEU vessels in operation today. While these vessels result in significant economies of scale in terms of reduced operating costs and emissions per TEU of vessel capacity, they pose substantial challenges for ports around the world whose infrastructure has to be upgraded to accommodate them. As a result, investment decisions regarding when to upgrade navigation channels, berths, and related infrastructure and the optimal target design vessel size have become more important than ever. This presentation will discuss existing harbour capabilities of prominent North American ports and the largest vessels currently calling at them. Many North American ports are currently evaluating options to deepen their harbours, but the funding required to upgrade every harbour does not exist, so the benefit and cost must be evaluated and quantified. This presentation will also explore the advantages of evaluating investment opportunities and priorities using simulation modeling, which can be used to analyze operations in detail and show explicit benefits of different types of projects, such as comparisons of future port capacity and vessel delay with various proposed future maximum harbour depths.

Presenter Bio

Krystle McBride, Senior Port Planner, AECOM
Krystle McBride is a port planner and project manager with ten years of experience. She has worked on a wide range of planning, simulation, capacity, and climate adaptation projects related to marine and intermodal terminals. Krystle frequently develops simulation analyses of proposed port improvement projects to evaluate potential capacity and operational improvements and for input to environmental impact studies.

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Shipping Evolution - Climate change and the effect on aging port infrastructure
Dan MacDonald, CBCL Limited

The objective of this presentations is to review climate change and the effect on aging port infrastructure.


This presentation reviews the evolution of shipping over the last fifty (50) years, looking at changing trends, and the evolution of vessel sizes including container ships, cruise ships, oil tankers, bulk vessels, etc. It also looks at climate change issues such as sea level rise, superstorms, and rise in sea temperature, i.e., increase corrosion effect, and the effect it is having on port infrastructure and, how this effects the condition of aging port infrastructure.

This presentation addresses the effect of all these issues on the port infrastructure, harbour size, channel size, and alignment condition of structural elements, fenders, bollards, elevation of docks with global sea rise, etc. The presentation also discusses remedial measures for addressing these issues with existing marine infrastructure, i.e., reinforcing dock structures and breakwater.

Presenter Bio

Dan MacDonald, M.A.Sc., P.Eng., FEC., FSSC, Senior Project Manager, CBCL Limited
Dan MacDonald, M.A.Sc., P.Eng., FEC., FSSC, has 42-years’ experience in the field of heavy civil and marine engineering. Dan began his career with Public Works Canada as a Marine Design Engineer for the Atlantic Regional office. In this position, he was involved in numerous dock and breakwater designs; most notably, the rebuild of the Ferry Terminal Facility in Port aux Basques, Newfoundland. In his years in the consulting industry, Dan has been involved in the design and construction of major marine structures throughout Atlantic Canada and the Caribbean; most notably, the heavy lift dock for the Confederation Bridge construction, the Point Tupper Marine Coal Terminal, St. John’s Syncrolift Drydock, Point Aconi Generating Station submerged intake cap, and the Bearhead Nova Scotia LNG Terminal. In addition, he authored the Vulnerability Study for the Eastern Caribbean, which investigated thirteen (13) ports for the effects of Category 5 storms, and presented the engineering to reinforce these ports. Currently, Dan is the Project Manager for the $150 million rebuild of the Marine Atlantic Inc. ferry service infrastructure, and is also Project Manager of a major breakwater design in Trinidad.

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Incorporation of Structural Reliability Assessment Approach into Upgrade and Renewal Decisions for Port and Marine Structures
Dave Anglin1, David Taylor1, Ed Liegel1, David Dack2, Dara McDonnell2
1Baird & Associates

The objective of this presentation is to discuss the application of reliability assessment methods to provide owners with the information required to better plan the upgrade and renewal of port and marine infrastructure.


Aged port and other marine structures can be vulnerable to failure due to materials degradation, and are often shown to be under-designed when assessed using modern standards and updated marine loading conditions. Increasingly, port and marine infrastructure is being operated for longer than the intended design life, and reliability methods can provide owners with the information required to better plan upgrades and renewals while maintaining an acceptable risk profile. Reliability assessment is particularly well suited to looking at the effect of changes to environmental conditions at a site, for example from sea level rise, or changes to the capacity of the structure over time from corrosion and degradation.

The conventional approach for undertaking a structural assessment of an existing port or marine structure has been deterministic, whereby uncertainties in the load and resistance component estimates are accounted for using factors of safety defined in published codes and standards. However, reliability assessment methods that consider site-specific data and detailed knowledge of load and structural resistance parameters can be an effective way to more accurately quantify the risk of failure and to better inform asset management decision making. The output of the reliability assessment can be expressed as an effective probability of failure which can then be weighed against a set of defined criteria for acceptability. The acceptability of risk will depend on a number of factors, such as the quality of the available data, the consequences of failure, and the risk strategies and systems of the asset owner(s).

The purpose of this presentation is to demonstrate the potential benefits that a reliability assessment approach can provide. To this end, the presentation includes a summary of the background of reliability assessment, a discussion on the typical methodologies used to undertake such an assessment, and examples comparing code-based and reliability assessment approaches. Under the right circumstances, a robust reliability assessment can significantly benefit owners with the asset management of their port and marine structures, specifically providing optimization of capital expenditures. 

Presenter Bio

Dave Anglin, Senior Coastal Engineer, Baird & Associates
Dave Anglin is a senior coastal engineer with Baird with 33 years of experience in coastal and marine engineering. In addition to providing project management and oversight and review on a variety of projects, he specializes in the physical modeling and design of coastal and marine structures.

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