2018 MINW web banner EN

Stream 2: Port and Coastal Engineering


<< -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  - >>

Seismic Risk Identification and Planning for Seismic Resilience of Ports
Houman Ghalibafian, HXG Consulting  

The objective of this presentation is to highlight the seismic risk to ports and its economic impact, to discuss seismic resilience for timely resumption of operation, and risk mitigation strategies for maximizing value of investment. 


Past earthquakes have demonstrated that ports are vulnerable to earthquake ground motions. There are several examples of significant financial loss due to damage to infrastructure, due to loss of revenue resulting from downtime, and due to long term loss of business resulting from extended interruption of operation and slow recovery. This presentation provides an overview of seismic risk to ports and marine infrastructure. Risk identification and factors affecting the cost and the recovery time are discussed. The concept of seismic resilience is explained and the relationship between earthquakes, damage to various components of ports, and resumption of operation are highlighted. Lastly, the importance of earthquake preparedness, planning for seismic resilience, and opportunities for seismic risk mitigation by informed decision making are discussed in consideration of the economic importance of ports and the limitation of available resources.  

Presenter Bio

Houman Ghalibafian, Ph.D., P.Eng.,Principal, HXG Consulting Engineering
Houman Ghalibafian, Ph.D., P.Eng., is a structural engineering consultant with over 20 years of experience in marine, transportation and industrial infrastructure projects ranging from small to major multi-disciplinary projects with capital costs of over $2 billion for private and public sector clients. Houman witnessed first-hand the negative impacts of earthquakes which inspired him to perform research to find improved ways of reducing seismic risk. He now brings considerable expertise in seismic risk assessment and mitigation. Houman has initiated and taught a course on marine structures to practicing engineers to help filling the gap in professional development related to marine infrastructure.   

  << -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  - >>

Experimental Investigation of Debris Displacement During Extreme Coastal Flooding Events
Jacob Stolle1, Ioan Nistor1, Nils Goseberg2 & Emil Petriu1 
1University of Ottawa
2Leibniz Universität Hannover

The objective of this presentation is to examine the propagation characteristics of debris in extreme flooding events. A better understanding of debris motion will allow for improved assessment of debris loading potential during these extreme events.


Catastrophic damage caused by recent large-scale coastal flooding events, such as the 2005 Hurricane Katrina and the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami, have highlighted the lack of understanding regarding the estimation of loads considered in the design of critical infrastructure, in particular the debris-related loads. A proper understanding of assessing highly vulnerable communities is needed to focus on where high-quality, conservative design is necessary. This study aims to address the displacement of debris in an experimental setting to provide a basis for assessing communities vulnerable to debris loads. 

The study was performed in the University of Ottawa high-discharge flume (30 m x 1.5 m x 0.8 m) with a flat, horizontal bottom. The experiments were performed at a 1:40 length scale (Froude scaling). The hydrodynamic forcing factor was a dam-break wave, scaled to model an inundating, broken tsunami wave moving over a coastal plain. The debris was a scaled-down standardized shipping container. Two impoundment depths were used: 0.20 m and 0.40 m. Additionally, the debris was placed with the long axis of the debris in two different orientations: perpendicular and parallel to the flow direction. 

The displacement of the debris was monitored using a camera-based object-tracking algorithm, using two high-definition cameras recording images at a sampling rate of 25 Hz. The hydrodynamics were monitored to ensure repeatability using three wave gauges and an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV). As the flume had a flat bottom, the receding inundation flow could not be examined, therefore this study focuses on the displacement of the debris. 

An examination of the mean displacement found a statistically different mean displacement between initial conditions (F (3,74) = 18.37, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.429). Based on Fisher’s LSD post hoc test, the mean difference between the groups with different initial orientations was significantly different (p < 0.05). Whereas the hydrodynamic boundary condition did not appear to significantly influence the mean lateral displacement (p > 0.05). 

Analysis results indicate that the displacement of the debris around their mean trajectory can be estimated using a normal distribution. Additionally, the initial orientation of the debris influenced the displacement of the debris whereas the hydrodynamics boundary condition did not significantly influence the mean lateral displacement. Based on the results, the authors concluded that the trajectory of the debris can be approximately estimated using a mean lateral displacement of 0 encompassed by a normal distribution. 

Presenter Bio

Jacob Stolle, Ph.D. Student, University of Ottawa
Jacob Stolle is a Ph.D. student at the University of Ottawa under the supervision of Prof. Ioan Nistor and Prof. Emil Petriu. He completed his M.A.Sc. at the University of Ottawa also under the supervision of Prof. Ioan Nistor, focusing on natural disaster research, in particular, tsunamis. He completed his B.Eng. from the University of Guelph in Environmental Engineering.

  << -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  - >>

Nanisivik Naval Facility
Harald Kullmann1 and Rodney Watson2
1Advisian-Worley Parsons
2Department of National Defence

The objective of this presentation is to describe the redevelopment of the decommissioned port that used to service the lead-zinc mine at Nanisivik, Nunavut, into a new facility that will service the new Royal Canadian Navy Arctic and Offshore Patrol Ships. 


The port site at Nanisivik, on Strathcona Sound in the Canadian High Arctic, served a lead-zinc mine for 27 years until the main ore body was depleted and the mine subsequently decommissioned. The port site and the ore dock were funded by the Government of Canada to promote mining development in the north and Arctic sovereignty. For Many years, the dock has been under the administration of Public Works Canada, with considerable research on ice loads conducted by the National Research Council. The site is now under the administration of the Department of National Defence. 

The new Nanisivik Naval Facility (NNF) will be used for the Royal Canadian Navy's new Arctic and Offshore Patrol Ships as a refuelling port while on patrol in the high Arctic. It will also continue to be used by the Canadian Coast Guard for transshipment of dry cargo and fuel in their supporting services to Environment Canada's Eureka Weather Station and to the Government of Nunavut for resupply of the Hamlet of Kugaaruk. 

The NNF project, which is in its third year of construction, includes considerable refurbishment and improvements of the now 43 year old dock structure, new fuel tanks and pump systems for dispensing naval distillate fuel, and shore buildings and infrastructure that will support the new operations. 

This presentation will describe the planning and development of the Nanisivik Naval Facility and some of the problems encountered during the engineering and the construction of the facilities. 

Presenter Bio 

Harald Kullmann, Senior Project Manager, Ports and Harbours, Advisian-WorleyParsons
Harald Kullmann is a senior port development engineer with Advisian-WorleyParsons practicing from the Vancouver office for the past 25 years. He is the engineer of record for the deep sea wharf at Vale Inco’s nickel mine at Voisey’s Bay in Labrador, Glencore Nickel’s deep sea wharf at Deception Bay in Nunavik, and other mines in the Canadian Arctic. Harald has been working with the Government of Nunavut on the Iqaluit and Pond Inlet projects as far back as 2009. His other port development assignments have taken him across the Canadian Arctic, Greenland and Alaska. He is currently also leading the Nanisivik Naval Facility for the Department of National Defence.

Rodney Watson, Senior Project Manager, Directorate of Construction Project Delivery, Department of National Defence
Rodney Watson is a senior Project Manager in the Directorate of Construction Project Delivery at the Department of National Defence (DND). Rod has worked in the Arctic and/or contributed to northern projects since 2003, beginning with an assignment on the DEW Line Clean-up project. Since 2008, he has been the DND project manager for the Nanisivik Naval Facility. Rod has travelled extensively in the north, from CFS Alert, Greenland, Yellowknife and other remote locations.

  << -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  - >>

New Viau Terminal
Hugo Brassard
Montreal Port Authority

The objective of this presentation is to introduce the new Viau terminal, which will meet the needs resulting the expected growth in container merchandise, by adding an additional capacity of 600,000 TEU containers at the Port of Montreal. 


The benefits of the new Viau terminal are considerable. This will bring the Port of Montreal’s handling capacity to 2.1 million TEU containers (twenty-foot equivalent units). The Viau terminal can accommodate post-Panamax ships, which are the largest container ships that can reach the Port and which can carry up to 6,000 TEU containers. 

The construction of the Viau terminal is part of a wider project to optimize the Port’s capacity, which includes the capacity to handle containers and improvements to maritime and road access. The Port of Montreal must be proactive on these three fronts in order to find a balance between the efficient movement of goods and a proper fluidity in port activities. 

The investments made to improve port infrastructures will make it possible to ensure fluidity in the global movement of merchandise, competitiveness, productivity and efficiency at the Port of Montreal. 

Construction of the container terminal is a key project for the Port of Montreal, for the metropolitan region, Quebec and Canada for the following reasons:

  • Responds to the space needs of the terminal operator Termont;
  • Makes it possible to accommodate the expected growth in traffic in the container market;
  • Ensures continued operational manoeuvring room;
  • Generates important benefits for the local and national economy: 2,500 direct and indirect jobs and $340 M in economic benefits;
  • Considerably increases the merchandise handling capacity of the Port; and
  • Facilitates access to large ships. 

The Montreal Port Authority (MPA) began high-level negotiations with the terminal operator (Termont) in early 2014 in order to develop a container terminal on the Viau site. This round of negotiations made it possible to establish the markers in the implementation of the project as well as the milestones to be respected with the operator. Among the markers to be respected, Termont expected to be able to operate the terminal during the construction period. An interruption in operations was therefore not possible. Among the necessary elements for this temporary operation, we had:

  • A temporary wharf with mobile cranes with a frequency of one ship per week;
  • A temporary rail line;
  • An entry and exit for trucks entering and leaving the terminal; and
  • A storage area for 2,000 containers. 

The MPA undertook the same exercise with the other project partners. It made it possible to summarize all the issues and to get an accurate picture of the expectations of all the stakeholders. 

Project planning began in 2014 with the integration of the important milestones to be respected as part of the project, as well as the phasing needed to achieve the main objective of delivering a terminal in October 2016. These key milestones included:

  • Completing the west zone to enable the moving of temporary operations and thereby free up the central work zone (December 2015);
  • Delivering rail service to the grain terminal (August 2016);
  • Delivering a berth including crane rails in order to enable the operation to install its cranes (August 2016);
  • Delivering an electrical substation in order to connect the terminal’s electrical loads (September 2016);
  • Delivering rail service to the Viau terminal (October 2016); and
  • Delivering the completed terminal in October 2016

The project design was completed in work batches in accordance with the milestones to be achieved for the various project objectives. Several pre-purchases, for the long-delivery equipment, were also undertaken to achieve project objectives. 

A strategy using various work batches made it possible to complete the project and achieve all the planned milestones. The project was delivered on time and on budget with the required quality and to the satisfaction of all the various project stakeholders. 

Presenter Bio

Hugo Brassard, Engineer, Montreal Port Authority
Hugo Brassard is a construction engineer with nearly 15 years of experience. Hugo works mainly in project management for various projects varying in scope. He has been working for the Montreal Port Authority for nearly nine years as a project manager. 

 << -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  - >>

Assessment of Debris Issues Impacting the Design of a Flood Diversion Project in a Large Scale Physical Model
Paul Knox1, John Menninger2, Andrew Cornett1
1National Research Council of Canada
2Stantec Consulting Limited

The objective of this presentation is to provide a full description of a physical model used to assess and refine the design of the control structures for a new river diversion and off-stream storage reservoir at the Elbow River southwest of Calgary. A particular focus will be on the utilization of the model to optimize design elements of new flood control structures, particularly to mitigate adverse impacts due to water-borne woody debris. 


The Elbow River flows through southwest Calgary and is susceptible to flooding with catastrophic results. During the flooding event of June 2013, the peak flow rate of the Elbow River entering the Glenmore Reservoir reached approximately 1,240 m3/s, while the natural capacity of the river is less than 200 m3/s. The losses experienced during the June 2013 flood have been valued in excess of $5B. Following the 2013 flood, the Springbank Off-stream Storage Project was conceived to divert the flows of the Elbow River during flood events into an off-stream storage reservoir where the flood water would be stored and released gradually back into the Elbow River after the flood peak has passed. Some of the main structural components of the project include a diversion structure that intersects the Elbow River, a diversion channel and an off-stream storage reservoir. 

A large-scale physical model study was subsequently commissioned to assist in assessing and improving the initial design for the diversion structure to ensure good performance under a range of flood conditions. Of particular concern was the behaviour of sediments and the potential for sediment deposition, as well as the impact of woody debris. Hence, the main objectives for the physical model study were to:

  • Determine the hydraulic performance of various key elements of the new diversion structure for a range of operational and extreme flow conditions;
  • Assess the behaviour of sediments and the potential for sediment deposition within and around the diversion structure;
  • Assess the impact of debris on the performance of the diversion structure;
  • Help refine the proposed designs to improve conveyance, reduce the risk of erosion and sedimentation, reduce the risk of blockage by debris, improve constructability, and reduce costs where possible; and,
  • Determine rating curves for the selected hydraulic structures. 

An undistorted three-dimensional physical model of the proposed structure was constructed at a length scale of 1:16, and operated to meet these objectives. This large-scale physical model occupied a footprint of 50 m by 30 m and included realistic reproductions of the bathymetry and topography of the Elbow River, the diversion structure, and the diversion channel. Over 300 pieces of woody debris were prepared for use in the physical model to simulate mature conifer trees that had been uprooted and transported downstream by the flood. The behaviour of individual debris pieces as well as debris rafts of various sizes was investigated in the model. 

The presentation will provide a full description of the physical model with a focus on the tests in which the impacts of woody debris were studied and assessed. The physical model proved to be a very useful tool for assessing and refining the design of the new flood control structures, particularly to mitigate adverse impacts due to water-borne woody debris.  

Presenter Bio

Paul Knox, M.Sc.(Eng.), P.Eng., Marine Infrastructure Thrust Leader, National Research Council of Canada
Paul Knox, M.Sc.(Eng.), P.Eng., is a coastal engineer and the leader of the Marine Infrastructure thrust at the National Research Council of Canada's (NRC) Ocean, Coastal, and River Engineering research portfolio. NRC is the Government of Canada's premier research and technology organization delivering scientific research and technical services focused on addressing the needs of clients and stakeholders across many sectors of the global economy. Paul is a specialist in the application of physical models to investigate and develop innovative solutions to a wide variety of engineering problems in rivers, lakes and oceans, and is part of a multidisciplinary team of scientists, engineers and technologists conducting applied research in the fields of coastal engineering, maritime and offshore structures, and port development.

 << -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  - >>

Experimental and Numerical Modeling of Hydrodynamic Loading on Pipelines Due to Extreme Hydrodynamic Conditions
Behnaz Ghodoosipour, Ioan Nistor, Majid Mohammadian
University of Ottawa

The objective of this presentation is to address the details of physical and numerical modeling research conducted as part of a PhD thesis with the focus on hydrodynamic loading on pipelines during extreme hydrodynamic conditions such as tsunamis and storm surges. Research conclusions could be used for an optimal pipeline design in coastal areas.


Pipelines in coastal areas are used for gas and oil transportation, as well as for disposal of wastewater to water bodies. Installation of pipelines in coastal areas is of great importance, and different engineering design criteria should be considered when planning for installing pipelines in such areas. A new topic in pipeline design has emerged lately due to the recent extreme hydrodynamic events such as tsunami-induced coastal inundation and storm surges. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to investigate the hydrodynamic forces induced on pipelines during such extreme waves and flood-related events. A comprehensive program of physical model experiments were conducted in the Hydraulic Flume at the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Ottawa. The tests attempted to replicate the inland propagation of tsunami-induced inundation and thus allowed to measure the hydrodynamic forces exerted on pipe due to tsunami-like bores. Different pipe placement configurations such as using different relative gap ratios (e/D – with e being the space between the pipe and the underlying ground and D being the diameter of the pipe) were systematically tested under various flow conditions. The bores were generated by the sudden release of water impounded in a reservoir and tests were conducted also using both wet and dry bed conditions. 

For the case of dry bed conditions, experimental results show that for e/D ≤ 0.3, the time-history of drag force exerted on the pipe varies and it exhibits larger magnitudes directly proportional with the e/D ratios. Two peaks are noticeable in force time-history, herein termed as impulse and run-up peaks, whereas, for other relative gap ratios, no distinct peak was noticed in force time-history. The main reason for such behaviour when using small e/D ratios is the suppression of the vortex shedding which forms around the pipe. 

For the case of wet bed conditions, the time-history of the drag force shows no change even when drastically changing the relative gap ratio. In another approach, OpenFoam CFD modeling tool was used for simulating the experimental study discussed above. Simulation results using the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) models were compared to the experimental results and indicate that the LES model can better represent the dam break wave flow behaviour. 

Results from this study will be used for the assessment of the current design recommendations with the ultimate goal of improving them.

Presenter Bio

Behnaz Ghodoosipour, PhD Student, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa
Behnaz Ghodoosipour is currently a PhD student at the University of Ottawa working on his PhD thesis on 'Hydrodynamic loading on structures due to extreme hydrodynamic conditions". He started working at the University of Ottawa on May 2014 as a researcher under Natural Resources Canada;s internship scholarship program. Behnaz received his MSc from Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) Stockholm, Sweden on 2012 and his Bachelor's degree in Civil Engineering from Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran. His research interests include: Coastal engineering, Tsunami waves and their impacts on coastal structures, wave-structure interaction loads.

<< -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  - >>

Port of Long Beach Middle Harbor Terminal: Modern Container Terminal Pavement Design and Construction
Kenneth W. Wylie1 & John Y. Chun2
 1Amec Foster Wheeler E & I, Inc.
 2Port of Long Beach 

The objective of this presentation is to provide attendees an overview of this considerable Terminal construction project for automated operation and the significant effort put into the design of the pavements for long-term performance with minimized maintenance.


The Port of Long Beach is in the midst of one of its largest projects ever, the Middle Harbor Terminal Redevelopment, in Long Beach California. This project involves transformation of three existing terminals into one of the largest, greenest and most advanced container terminals in the US. The Port determined that pavement quality and performance was a major concern for the projects approximately 1 Million square yards of pavement due to the plan for continuous operations with the fully automated vehicles. Thus, alternative pavement designs were developed to minimize the need of maintenance and also to minimize the pavement construction costs and still achieve the pavement design life standard. 

The pavement design effort for the Middle Harbor Terminal focused upon the development of the most accurate design input relationships needed for the design methodology. Specifically, a major effort was placed upon the analyses that was conducted for the geotechnical investigation, selection of typical range of material properties (quality levels) for a variety of pavement layer materials, traffic analysis associated with each specific design area, and the selection of plausible unit material costs, postulated future maintenance (distress) criterion and cost stream for each pavement alternative for direct use into the life cycle cost analysis. The team compared life cycle costs for over 4,560 pavement sections in ten different design areas to identify which pavement construction approaches were the most reliable and cost effective. 

The Port of Long Beach design team established a very innovative approach to this technical challenge which was centered on the geotechnical concepts of partially saturated soils. The geotechnical investigation focused on distributed dynamic cone penetration (DCP) tests with moisture profiles in the field along with laboratory testing of soils in both the soaked and unsoaked condition. The goal was to select soil support values based on the in-place moisture conditions and avoid the practice of assuming the saturated (worst case) condition. The team incorporated information from multiple sources to establish theoretical moisture profiles within the zone of influence for the typically heavily loaded pavements and evaluated at various seasons. The actual data collected was compared to the theoretical profiles and reasonable support values were established based on the improved understanding of the overall soils and moisture conditions.

Presenter Bio

Kenneth W. Wylie, Principal Materials Engineer, Albuquerque Materials, Amec Foster Wheeler E & I, Inc.
Kenneth W. Wylie, P.E. is a licensed professional engineer and has gained a wide range of experience over his 40-year career in the realms of materials engineering, pavements, and quality control/quality assurance. Kenneth has been involved with numerous pavement design analyses, condition evaluations, and rehabilitation designs on many project types including military and commercial airfields, industrial pavements including intermodal facilities, and state and municipal roads. He is knowledgeable in various pavement design methodologies including USACE PCASE pavement design program with its broad capabilities for modeling and designing for specialty vehicles such those used at intermodal facilities. 

John Y. Chun, Division Director, Engineering Design Division, Port of Long Beach
John Y. Chun, P.E., is the Engineering Design Division Director at the Port of Long Beach, California. He began his career at the Port in 1996 as an Assistant Civil Engineer, became Deputy Chief Harbor Engineer in the Engineering Design Division in 2008, and was promoted to his current post in 2014. John supervises and manages the Port's Engineering Design Division including the civil, structural, traffic, electrical, corrosion control, underwater inspection/diving, GIS/mapping, drafting (CADD) and terminal design sections. The Port of Long Beach is the second-busiest container seaport in the United States handling trade valued at $180 billion annually.

<< -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  - >>

Design of Innovative Tied-down Cellular Sheet Piled Wharf
William Hayhoe and Barry Bridger
Dillon Consulting Limited 

The objective of this presentation is to describe the design of an innovative tied-down cellular sheet piled wharf. The unique design was developed to deal with a number of unique site conditions.


This presentation will explain the design of a unique tied-down cellular sheet piled wharf currently under construction in Fortune, Newfoundland. A number of unique site conditions prevented the use of typical wharf structural systems such as piles, tied-back sheet piling, timber cribs, or concrete caissons. An existing building immediately adjacent to the wharf required that the new wharf be designed to support lateral pressure from fill and live loads within the building. Gravity wharf systems such as timber cribs, concrete caissons, or typical cellular sheet piling could not be used because of the narrow width of wharf and amount of vessel draft required. The adjacent pile-supported multi-storey building prevented the use of a sheet pile wharf supported by deadmen or battered tension piles. 

The solution developed to deal with these site conditions consists of rectangular steel sheet pile cells. At the four corners where the cells meet, the sheet pile walls are joined into pipe piles. The pipe piles along the landward side of the wharf are tension piles socketed into bedrock to resist overturning forces. The landward sheet pile wall is reinforced with a large concrete beam to transfer overturning forces from the sheet pile wall into the tension pipe piles. The seaward and landward sheet pile walls are joined to each other with a tie-back system to prevent the walls from bowing outwards. The sheet pile walls running perpendicular to the wharf face are reinforced with a concrete shear beam to ensure the entire wharf acts together to resist overturning forces. The presentation will describe in more detail and with the assistance of graphics the site conditions and innovative design developed to deal with unique site conditions.

Presenter Bio

William Hayhoe, Dillon Consulting Limited
William Hayhoe has over four years experience in marine and structural design, site inspection, and contract administration. He has worked on projects for St. John’s Port Authority, Corner Brook Port Corporation, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, and Argentia Port Corporation. His marine experience includes design and repair of piled wharves, sheet piled wharves, timber cribs and cellular sheet piling. 

Barry Bridger, Dillon Consulting Limited
Barry Bridger has over 38 years of progressive experience as a professional engineer in design and construction. This includes marine infrastructure, bridges, offshore oil production facilities and buildings. He has been involved in the full range of engineering services including initial investigations, planning, concept, detailed design and contract administration during construction. His marine experience includes design and repair of piled wharves, sheet piled wharves, timber cribs, concrete caissons and cellular sheet piling. 

 << -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  - >>

Jetty NJ, CFB Halifax, NS
Hari Krishan; Ellis O’Neil, Tom Mader
Amec Foster Wheeler 

The objective of the presentation would be to demonstrate the process in the development of the Jetty NJ Project. The main focus will be on the project development, design and construction. 


This presentation discusses the history of the development of Jetty NJ project and various changes which led to its final design. Jetty NJ design and construction involves a 247 m long x 18.2 m wide jetty with a water depth of 13 m. It is designed as a marginal operational jetty with large back-up apron area, a dedicated jetty crane, for the berthing of 4-AOPS vessels in a double nested configuration. 

The jetty structure consists of six 40 m long x 17.6 m wide and 14.8 m high reinforced concrete caissons constructed by slip forming. The upper 3.5 m section of caissons above the tidal zone is constructed of cast-in-place concrete and consists of the cope wall, service tunnel, crane beams and reinforced concrete deck. 

The Jetty has a 6 m wide continuous service tunnel. It is located in the middle section of the Jetty and branches to the dockside tunnels. It is connected to an onshore yard tunnel and sub-station. These tunnels carry various types of mechanical and electrical services, which feed mechanical and electrical mounts (kiosks) located on the jetty deck. These mounts are sized to service four ships in double nested position, at two berthing locations. 

The presentation discusses:

  • Original general arrangement;
  • Revised general arrangement;
  • Design criteria;
  • Structural options;
  • Value Engineering;
  • Dredging and disposal of contaminated materials; and,
  • Caisson construction and their placement.
Presenter Bio

Tom Mader, P.Eng., Senior Consultant, Amec Foster Wheeler
Tom Mader has over 32 years of experience in project management, engineering design and project feasibility assessment. His experience base covers a wide range of project types including infrastructure, energy, mining and manufacturing representing capital investments in excess of $300 million. Tom was the Project Manager for the A-Jetty Replacement Project and the Rocky Point Recapitalization Concept Study, and he retired in 2017 from this position as Operations Manager and Senior Project Manager for Amec Foster Wheeler's Atlantic Region and now works as Senior Consultant. 

Hari Krishan, P.Eng., Lead Structural Engineer, Amec Foster Wheeler
Hari Krishan has over 40 years of experience in a broad variety of civil engineering projects including marine structures, oil and gas, thermal power plants, industrial plants, commercial and industrial buildings, bridges and restoration work. He has been responsible for successful performance of numerous assignments ranging from project management, planning, preliminary design, final design, tender documents through project construction and commissioning. Hari is one of the foremost designers of marine structures and has developed and designed the majority of all major jetties and wharves at CFB Dockyard Halifax. Hari is also the Lead Structural Engineer for the A-Jetty Replacement Project currently ongoing for CFB Esquimalt and the Rocky Point Recapitalization Concept Study. 

Ellis O'Neil, Operations Manager, Amec Foster Wheeler
Ellis O'Neil has over 29 years of experience working in the consulting engineering and electrical utility field, including projects for the private sector and government agencies. He managed the design of three large wastewater treatment plants, and was the engineering manager and lead engineer for the fabrication and outfitting for the topsides portion of an offshore gas platform. He designed numerous concrete dams, spillways, and outlet structures. Ellis managed and participated in Dam Safety Reviews for more than two decades for clients including electric utilities, municipal water utilities, and mining companies. He was the lead engineer for the Hydro Operations group of an electrical utility, responsible for the dam safety program, asset management program, short and long term capital planning, capital project execution, and ongoing technical support to the Hydro Operations group. Performed the analysis and design of numerous structural steel, reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete structures for the offshore, marine, industrial, energy, commercial and transportation sectors. 

<< -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  - >>

Rubber Fender Manufacturing: best practice from formulation to performance measurement
Mishra Kumar
Trelleborg Marine Systems

The objective of this presentation is to provide insight into the importance of the mixing process, equipment used to manufacture rubber compounds, and the impact of both on the performance and lifecycle of a fender.


PIANC’s “Guidelines for the design of fender systems, 2002” highlighted the importance of Velocity Factor (VF) and Temperature Factor (TF) in the design and selection of fenders, and provides direction for reporting and calculating both.

It is exceptionally difficult to conduct tests at actual berthing velocities due to the wide range of different fenders and the lack of testing facilities. Fenders are therefore usually tested at 2-8cm/min compression speed, which is drastically lower than a ship’s actual berthing speed. To compensate for this, VF is applied to low speed test results to simulate a real life berthing.

The performance of a fender is directly proportional to the fender’s rubber stiffness, which scales according to the temperature. Fenders are usually tested at 23 ±5 °C. However, in the real world, they can be exposed to a much broader range of temperatures. To simulate performance in real world situations, TF is applied.

Both VF and TF are highly sensitive to the chemical composition (formulation) of different kinds of rubber compounds. Ingredient selection and rubber compound formulation are also very important factors in determining the efficiency (the ratio of energy absorption and reaction force) of a particular fender.

Until recently, understanding chemical composition in rubber fenders was not practiced in the fender industry due to a lack of suitable tests and specifications.

After undertaking comprehensive research on the impact of formulation on fender performance, Trelleborg Marine Systems introduced new specifications for stakeholders to evaluate quantitatively and qualitatively the chemical composition of a given fender, using the Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis, or TGA test.

The TGA test has been well received by the industry. Other high quality manufacturers have followed suit and, currently, the trend in the industry leans towards consultants building requirements for TGA testing into specifications. This is important, because the TGA test determines whether fenders have been produced using a technically superior rubber formulation, one that includes little or no recycled rubber and only reinforcing fillers, like carbon black. Reinforcing fillers improve the mechanical properties of rubber, whereas non-reinforcing fillers, such as calcium carbonate might damage a fender’s mechanical properties.

The rubber and filler used are critical: 70-80% of a high quality fender’s rubber formulation should consist of raw rubber (natural or synthetic) and carbon black, while the remaining 20-30% would consist of ten to fifteen other small ingredients. Raw rubbers, carbon black and these other ingredients are then converted to a rubber compound through a mixing process.

Although the TGA test ensures a superior formulation, relying on this test alone is not sufficient to guarantee the rubber compound’s quality, or the consistency of finished products. These parameters rely on a superior mixing process.

A superior formulation, confirmed by TGA test, when converted to a rubber compound can still be of poor quality due to an inferior mixing process. This can ultimately produce an inferior fender, incapable of absorbing the correct amount of energy.

Through ongoing research in rubber compound mixing, Trelleborg has proven the importance of the mixing and manufacturing process in producing a superior rubber compound, and subsequently, a superior rubber fender. This paper will provide insight into the importance of the mixing process, equipment used to manufacture rubber compounds, and the impact of both on the performance and lifecycle of a fender.

Presenter Bio

After joining Trelleborg in 2001, Mishra’s responsibilities have spanned the technical development of marine fenders, mining products, as well as general and special purpose industrial goods for Trelleborg Singapore, China, Australia and the U.S. Today, Mishra holds the title of Global Technical Director for Marine Fenders, and supports the company’s technical and sales teams globally. Having spent over 16 years in the rubber industry, Mishra is a regular presenter of technical papers at leading international conferences. Mishra has a B.Tech in Rubber Technology from University of Calcutta, an M.Sc (Tech) from UDCT, Mumbai University, and completed his MBA from the University of Chicago.

<< -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  - >>

3D Physical Modelling and Revetment Design for the Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport Extension
Scott Baker1
National Research Council Canada
WSP Canada Inc.

The objective of this presentation is to demonstrate NRC's capabilities to assess, optimize, and validate marine infrastructure projects before construction to reduce risk, improve performance, and minimize costs.


As part of a planned development for Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport, new land reclamation and related marine works are required to extend both ends of the main runway. Wave conditions at the eastern end of the runway are relatively mild, as the site is sheltered inside Toronto Harbour. However, the western runway extension will be directly exposed to strong winds, energetic wave conditions, high water levels, and winter ice conditions on Lake Ontario. An engineered revetment is required to prevent erosion, preserve stability, and protect the exposed western reclamation from attack by waves and ice. The design challenge was compounded by the requirement to minimize the frequency and extent of wave run-up and overtopping during storms to avoid frequent inundation of the runway. At the same time, the crest elevation of the perimeter revetment was limited by several requirements for safe operations at the airport. A large-scale 3D physical modelling study was crucial to develop, test, and optimize the design of the perimeter revetment and for costing the marine works. In order to accommodate the stringent design requirements, several innovative revetment design concepts (featuring lower crest elevations, milder slopes, thicker filter layers, and thicker armour layers

than normally seen in conventional designs) were tested in a wide range of harsh wave, wind, and water level conditions. Once the development is approved, the longer runway will allow for expanded operations from Billy Bishop Airport, with the ability to reach destinations anywhere across North America. This will greatly benefit the citizens of Toronto and boost the local economy. The longer runway will also improve safety by reducing the risk of runway excursion.

Presenter Bio

Mr. Baker is a coastal engineer with ten years of experience in civil engineering hydraulics, and a specialist in the design and physical modelling of coastal structures, coastal processes, and port developments for optimizing and validating prototype designs. He has a broad range of experience in laboratory techniques, as well as engineering design, construction methods, and environmental issues. Scott has participated in and managed a wide array of projects in the fields of wave transformations, wave loading, shore protection schemes, and port and marina development.

<< -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  - >>

Coastal and marine environmental considerations related to the planning and design of a new marine terminal in Chatham Sound, Prince Rupert, BC. 
Otavio Sayao, Mark Johannes

The objective of this presentation is to discuss potential coastal and environmental impacts of a new liquefied natural gas export facility adjacent to the Flora Bank intertidal shoal, Prince Rupert, BC.


A marine terminal for a liquefied natural gas (LNG) export facility is being proposed off Lelu Island, Chatham Sound in Prince Rupert, BC. The terminal is being planned and designed in an area adjacent to an intertidal shoal (Flora Bank). The proposed marine terminal comprises a bridge, supported by an anchor block and a tower block, and a trestle connecting the bridge to two vessel berths. The intertidal shoal experiences tidal cycles of at least 7 meters and accompanying current. The intertidal shoal is partially covered by eelgrass and is used opportunistically by migratory juvenile salmon and local resident fish and invertebrate species.

The project’s environmental assessment applications to the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency and BC Environmental Assessment Office evaluated the potential project-related effects using various factors and indicators, including, coastal hydrodynamics, sediment transport and scour, fish and fish habitat, cumulative effects, and a variety of other factors including underwater and ambient noise, visual impacts, air quality, greenhouse gas emissions, marine navigation and safety measures.

Coastal hydrodynamics were assessed using numerical simulation using the Delft3D model to investigate the circulation, wave actions, sedimentation, and morphology under existing conditions and comparing with the situation with the terminal structures. The potential impacts of wave storms, current velocity and bed changes caused by the proposed marine structures were thus investigated with the aid of numerical modelling.

The potential changes to the waves and currents, main mechanisms for suspending and transporting sediments in the area, were relatively small and restricted to the area close to the marine structures, resulting only in localized changes to the Flora Bank morphology.

The results obtained during this study indicated that the marine structures will slightly decrease the energy arriving in Flora Bank and the changes will be localized, specially in a limited area around the major bridge structures (anchor block and tower).

Marine environmental conditions and potential effects were assessed using two years of continuous fisheries, oceanographic, and ecosystem studies to examine the presence, distribution, use and habitats in the terminal and surrounding area. The concern was raised about the potential for disrupting existing eelgrass habitat areas on the intertidal shoal through footprint of the proposed terminal marine. The intertidal shoal was found to provide limited opportunistic habitats for fish, invertebrates and other marine species including seabirds and mammals. The physical characteristics of the intertidal shoal were found to be very dynamic and not optimal for the use of fish species. The marine ecosystem information coupled with predictive modelling of the proposed marine terminal and facilities indicated no changes would be experienced by existing habitats on the intertidal shoal and adjacent habitat areas. The project has achieved regulatory approval and may or may not be permitted and designed for final construction based on the current economic market.

Presenter Bio

Otavio has more than 36 years of experience working on port, coastal, dredging, waterfront, river, harbour, and ocean engineering projects. His technical specialties include: ports and harbours planning, coastal area conceptual development, site selection studies, design and construction of ports and marine works, breakwaters and shore protection structures, navigation channels, sedimentation in channels and trenches, dredging technology, hydraulic (physical and numerical) modeling, and environmental impact assessment of coastal structures and port projects. Otavio’s local and international experience includes work in Canada, USA, Mexico, Brazil, Chile, the Caribbean, Africa, Indonesia, Dubai, and other South American countries.

Mark Johannes, Ph.D., RP Bio., P Biol. Senior Fisheries Biologist & Environmental Permitting Specialist Mark has over 34 years of experience as a marine biologist, environmental construction manager, environmental assessment and regulatory specialist, and habitat specialist, working in consulting, government and with Canadian and British Columbia agencies, First Nations, and communities on assessment, regulatory and permitting, tender specifications and environment management in the lower Mainland and across British Columbia and Canada. Mark’s consulting practice includes expertise in environmental management with technical specialty in assessments and site inventory, regulatory review and permitting, habitat enhancement, restoration, and offsetting, including detailed design and construction management under federal and provincial regulations.

<< -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  - >>

Montreal’s Alexander Pier: Building Underwater Poses Unique Challenges
Tony Mailhot
WSP Canada

The objective of this presentation is to discuss the challenges faced during the lowering of the end of the 350 m long Alexandra pier and the solutions designed that required a precise understanding of the construction process in underwater environments. 


Located at the heart of Montreal old port, the Alexandra Pier has become over the past century an iconic figure in the development of the city. As part of a multidisciplinary project commissioned by the Montreal Port Authority, WSP was assigned in 2015 the lowering of the end of the 350 m long pier. The main objective of this CAN$78-million modernization project was to restore riverfront access to pedestrians and small boats in an effort to attract more tourists to Montreal. The project also included a new observation tower overlooking the St. Lawrence River.

Prior to the design of the definitive structure, WSP team completed various 3-D designs and renderings of the site. This allowed all of the team members as well as the port to get a proper understanding of the complexity behind the various stages of construction of the redesign partially underwater wharf. This crucial stage of design included a lot of detailed construction methods to help the owner understand how construction will take place.

During the design phase, WSP marine infrastructure design team had to face and find solutions to many challenges that required a precise understanding of the construction process in underwater environments.

To properly lower the wharf, the engineers needed to account for the stabilization of two different types of existing structure throughout the whole demolition phase. WSP knew they would face their first main challenge: the wharf excavation would result in exposing the buried heavy concrete anchor blocks and tie-rods retaining the south and north wharves, making the wharf unstable. The original anchoring mechanisms that allowed the wharf to remain steady had been buried during a reconstruction project around the 1940s. Since the final level of the new wharf was located below this retaining system, the first step for the WSP engineers was to design and install inclined rock anchors in order to stabilize the walls and insure their stability until lowering work completed.

The two different types of new retaining walls were put in place to lower and rehabilitate the existing structures. For East wharf, steel caissons were driven to bedrock in front on the existing structure and anchored to the rock with inclined rock anchors passing through the heavy wood cribs using specialized on-land diamond-tipped drill bit. Sheet piles were then be driven into the bedrock between each caisson. Once the new structure was in place and the existing wall stabilized, the wharf was partially demolished to the intended elevation. Finally, in order to adjust to the variation of the finished ground level, a cope wall with varying height made of reinforced concrete, was cast in place to complete the combined retaining wall of the new wharf. A similar work procedure but with a different design was used for the North and South wharves.

Considering the location of the Alexandra Pier, the construction project also required the preparation of detailed planning and schedule transport and material supply had to be meticulously coordinated as it is an urban area accessed through the downtown.        

Presenter Bio

Tony Mailhot's experience is in design, construction and rehabilitation of large and medium bridge structures as well as hydroelectric, port and “off-shore’’ structures. Earlier in his career, he was involved in the design, the structural and seismic analysis and the development of construction methods for several large, highly complex projects involving bridges and hydroelectric structures both in Canada (British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec, Newfoundland) and in the United States (Michigan, Massachusetts, New York and Nebraska). Since 2000, M. Mailhot is involved in the design and rehabilitation of bridges located mainly in Quebec. For these projects, Mr.Mailhot acts as lead designer and /or project manager. He has co-authored scientific articles dealing with the mechanical and structural characteristics of concrete reinforced with steel fibres for the construction of bridge decks. Mr. Mailhot holds a Master’s degree in structure from the Laval University. Master's Degree in structural engineering, Laval University. Bachelor's Degree in civil engineering, Laval University. 

<< -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  - >>

Questions en

fb icon   Twitter icon   linkedIn icon